Journal of Dental Implants
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Structural analysis of in situ biofilm formation on oral titanium implants
Sebastian Grade, Wieland Heuer, Juergen Strempel, Meike Stiesch
January-June 2011, 1(1):7-12
DOI:10.4103/0974-6781.76425  
Background: The primary etiologic factor for peri-implant infections is the adhesion of biofilms on oral implant surfaces in the area of soft-tissue penetration. The aim of the present study was to examine in situ biofilm growth directly on implant-abutment surfaces without the use of oral splints and to determine the effect of intraoral abutment localization on biofilm growth. Materials and Methods: Fifteen titanium healing abutments were inserted in six patients for 14 days. The newly formed supragingival biofilm on the titanium surface of the healing abutments was stained with fluorescent Live/Dead Baclight kit before examination by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The biofilm was scanned in terms of its surface coverage and thickness and different sites. Results: The results show that the biofilm has a different structure in every patient, with the thickness of the biofilm structure ranging between 0 and 80 ΅m and the surface coverage between 0 and 97% of the abutment surface. There was similar biofilm surface coverage at different intraoral locations, whereas the biofilm was significantly thicker in the mandible as compared to maxillary implant abutments. Conclusion: The method uniquely describes an effective way to depict biofilm development on implant surfaces in the supra- and sub-gingival regions.
  1 7,336 1,306
A comparative analysis of sandblasted and acid etched and polished titanium surface on enhancement of osteogenic potential: An in vitro study
Raj G Singh
January-June 2012, 2(1):15-18
DOI:10.4103/0974-6781.96558  
Purpose: Establishment of titanium surface treatment and comparison of surface roughness and osteogenic potential of commercially pure titanium. Materials and Methods: Twenty commercially pure grade 2 titanium disks of similar design and dimensions were divided into two groups. Smooth samples were assigned as control group (Group S). The second group (Group SLA) samples were sand-blasted and etched with different acids. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) at ×500 was performed to observe the surface morphology. The surface roughness of samples was evaluated with surface profilometer. To evaluate the effect of surface treatment, samples from each group underwent cell culture study using human osteosarcoma osteoblast cell lines (HOS). SEM of one sample from each group was performed at ×500 to observe the cell morphology and cell attachment. Results: Sand-blasted and acid-etched (SLA) surface was rougher in comparison to the smooth surface. SEM result of sand-blasted and acid-etched surface (Group SLA) showed that cell sheets were able to adhere inside the valleys suggesting excellent attachment osseointegration to rough surface. Conclusion: This approach to develop sand-blasted and acid-etched surface was successful in uniform distribution of human osteosarcoma osteoblast cell lines (HOS) suggesting excellent osseointegration.
  1 5,103 771
REVIEW ARTICLES
A literature review on effects of smoking on the success of dental implants
Manish Goutam, Madhvi Singh, Deepak Patel
January-June 2013, 3(1):46-51
DOI:10.4103/0974-6781.111693  
The use of dental implants has revolutionized the treatment procedure for over last 25 years. Implants now have been widely accepted by patients as their treatment plan and have become a routine procedure by dental surgeons. Owing to the remarkable success, there have been various researches going on to find out factors responsible for the failure of implants. With the growing use of tobacco among patients, its ill effects on bone quality and quantity it arises a keen interest to associate effect on the success of implants. To establish a relationship between smoking and implant success and its long term survival and compare the result with non-smokers based on the literature. Relevant clinical studies and reviews published in English literature published between 1990 and 2012 were reviewed. The articles were located through EBSCO host and manually through the references of peer reviewed literature. Most of the literatures supported the fact that smoking is a prominent risk factor affecting the success of implants. Studies reported that implant failure and its complications associated are twice in smokers as compared to non-smokers. Literatures also revealed that maxillary implant are more affected than mandibular in smokers. Studies suggested that effects of smoking were reversible in smokers who followed the smoking cessation protocol prior to the procedure. Smokers have a greater chances of implant failure and more prone to the complications following implants and related procedures. Surgeons should stress on counseling of patient willing for implant for smoking cessations protocols.
  1 81,942 1,842
Maxillary immediate implant loading: A comprehensive review
Sagar J Abichandani, Ramesh Nadiger
January-June 2013, 3(1):52-57
DOI:10.4103/0974-6781.111697  
The tremendous success of osseointegration and predictability of implant treatment modality in the mandible prompted its investigations in the maxillary segment too for verifying whether similar success rates can be achieved. This review of literature gives us an idea about the various treatment modalities and investigations carried out by various researchers as an attempt to find out the predictability and longevity of immediate implant loading in the maxilla. The basic nomenclature, advantages and disadvantages of immediate loading, immediate loading and its relationship to osseointegration, its influence on primary stability, and micro-motion are considered and discussed. Over-emphasis has been placed on prosthodontically driven implant modality keeping the end-result and final outcome in mind. Few guidelines have been proposed that would help in the successful implementation of implant restorations.
  1 5,123 782
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