Journal of Dental Implants
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A literature review on effects of smoking on the success of dental implants
Manish Goutam, Madhvi Singh, Deepak Patel
January-June 2013, 3(1):46-51
The use of dental implants has revolutionized the treatment procedure for over last 25 years. Implants now have been widely accepted by patients as their treatment plan and have become a routine procedure by dental surgeons. Owing to the remarkable success, there have been various researches going on to find out factors responsible for the failure of implants. With the growing use of tobacco among patients, its ill effects on bone quality and quantity it arises a keen interest to associate effect on the success of implants. To establish a relationship between smoking and implant success and its long term survival and compare the result with non-smokers based on the literature. Relevant clinical studies and reviews published in English literature published between 1990 and 2012 were reviewed. The articles were located through EBSCO host and manually through the references of peer reviewed literature. Most of the literatures supported the fact that smoking is a prominent risk factor affecting the success of implants. Studies reported that implant failure and its complications associated are twice in smokers as compared to non-smokers. Literatures also revealed that maxillary implant are more affected than mandibular in smokers. Studies suggested that effects of smoking were reversible in smokers who followed the smoking cessation protocol prior to the procedure. Smokers have a greater chances of implant failure and more prone to the complications following implants and related procedures. Surgeons should stress on counseling of patient willing for implant for smoking cessations protocols.
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Platform switching: An answer to crestal bone loss
Krishna D Prasad, Manoj Shetty, Neha Bansal, Chethan Hegde
January-June 2011, 1(1):13-17
Background: The long-term success of an implant depends on the stability of bone support for the implant. Most crestal bone loss occurs in the first year of implant placement. Platform switching is an approach which can be clinically applied to preserve the crestal bone. Purpose: The purpose of this review is to discuss the literature dealing with the platform switching concept to preserve the crestal bone, the mechanism by which it contributes to maintenance of marginal bone, its clinical applications, advantages and disadvantages, in order to assess its survival rates. Materials and Methods: PubMed and Google Scholar were used to find studies involving platform switching concept from 2005 up to October 2009. Results: Literature search revealed studies involving concepts of platform switching, comparison of platform-switched and non-platform-switched implants, case reports on platform switching and studies with histological and finite element analyses regarding platform switching. Conclusion: Platform switching helps preserve crestal bone around the implants and this concept should be followed when clinical situations in implant placement permit.
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Telescopic overdentures with cercon primary coping and gold galvano secondary coping
Amandeep Goma, NK Aggarwal
January-June 2012, 2(1):65-70
Overdenture treatment provides an esthetic and functional result that allows proper access for hygiene and maintenance. In addition, with their improved strength, zirconia ceramics may be used to restore removable partial denture abutments in areas previously limited to metal or metal-ceramic restorations. The electroforming process makes for a viable, convenient, and economic alternative to cast metal substructures. However, limited data are available on the use of telescopic crowns on implants. Compared with the use of fixed implant-supported dentures, this treatment modality may improve esthetics and oral hygiene access, reduce the need for implants, and provide sufficient denture support in cases where single abutments have failed. Furthermore, the high retention obtained with telescopic crowns leads to good mastication and phonetics.
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Removal of a dental implant: An unusual case report
Joanne Cunliffe, Craig Barclay
January-June 2011, 1(1):22-25
This article is a case report of removal of a dental implant using electrosurgery. A discussion will outline a possibly less invasive method to remove the dental implant. This involves the use of electrosurgery unit to cause a thermo-necrosis of the bone and therefore a weakening of the bone-implant interface. It is suggested that a controlled laboratory experiment be carried out to look at the effects of mono-polar electrosurgery on osseointergration on dental implants and the possible use of this method to allow for simple removal of poorly positioned fixtures and also fixtures with significant bone loss but no mobility.
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Spark erosion process: An overview
Liju Jacob Jo
January-June 2011, 1(1):2-6
Spark erosion is a metal removal process using electric current under carefully controlled conditions. It is used for precise and accurate fabrication in the field of fixed, removable and implant prostheses. The scope of this article is to discuss the mechanism of action of the process and its significance in implant dentistry along with critical evaluation of its merits and demerits.
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Implant failure: A dentist's nightmare
Madhura Avinash Kate, Sangeeta Palaskar, Prakhar Kapoor
July-December 2016, 6(2):51-56
Dental implants are commonly used in clinical situations for replacement of natural teeth. Despite many advances in materials, techniques, and implant design, implant failure is a significant concern for the dentist and patient. Peri-implantitis and lack of osseointegration are considered to be the major factors leading to implant failure. Occlusal overloading, medical status of the patient, smoking, and implant characteristics are among the other causes for implant failure. The purpose of this concise review is to discuss the etiology of implant failures by highlighting the various classification put forth by different authors and formulating a new classification.
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Measuring implant stability: A review of different methods
Gaurang Mistry, Omkar Shetty, Shreya Shetty, Raghuwar D Singh
July-December 2014, 4(2):165-169
Achieving and maintaining implant stability are prerequisites for a dental implant to be successful. Implant stability can be defined as the absence of clinical mobility, which is also the suggested definition of osseointegration. Primary implant stability at placement is a mechanical phenomenon that is related to the local bone quality and quantity, the type of implant and placement technique used. Secondary implant stability is the increase instability attributable to bone formation and remodeling at the implant/tissue interface and in the surrounding bone. There are many ways in which the implant stability can be evaluated such as clinical measurement of cutting resistance during implant placement, reverse torque test, the periotest. This article aims to throw light on the various methods to determine implant stability.
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Selection of attachment systems in fabricating an implant supported overdenture
D Krishna Prasad, D Anupama Prasad, Manan Buch
July-December 2014, 4(2):176-181
Dental specialists today are facing a major influx of completely edentulous patients and patients with generalized compromised teeth who ask for cost-effective full mouth rehabilitation. The choice of overdenture as a treatment modality is significantly less expensive and is within the reach of many patients who are on a limited financial support. Various types of attachment systems are currently available to restore implant-supported over-denture. Clinicians have selected various attachment systems based on factors such as durability, patient demand, cost-effectiveness, technical simplicity, and retention. The decision-making process to select certain types of attachment system still remains unclear. This article explains about various attachment system available, their advantages and disadvantages and their use in different clinical conditions.
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Guidelines for treatment planning of mandibular implant overdenture
Siddharth Bansal, Meena A Aras, Vidya Chitre
January-June 2014, 4(1):86-90
Implant overdenture (OD) is the common treatment modality for the rehabilitation of complete mandibular edentulism with dental implants. The purpose of this review was to collect the data regarding various factors contributing to the selection of implant OD design and to provide comprehensive guidelines for the clinicians in planning the OD design.
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Zirconia versus titanium dental implants: A systematic review
Rahul Patil
January-June 2015, 5(1):39-42
Esthetics has taken a prime position in dentistry today.People are getting more diverged to tooth coloured materials for good esthetics.This article stresses on newer metal free implant materials which have been developed due to increased demand for improved esthetics and biocompatibility along with the preference among the general population for non-metal implant materials.
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Primary stability: The password of implant integration
Polsani Laxman Rao, Amreena Gill
July-December 2012, 2(2):103-109
The dental implant therapy has a phenomenal rise and has occupied the summit in today's dentistry. The scientific societies and researchers are in constant effort toward improvement, excellence, and simplification of implant therapy. Today, the practitioners are enthusiastic to imbibe the simplified implant procedures and techniques and would like to carry out the same in their private practice. Implant design, bone biology, primary stability, osseointegration, prosthetic options etc., are the several issues taken into account for successful implant therapy. The factors which influence integration are design of implant, material composition of implant, variance in the bone quality (soft or hard), and type of surgical procedure employed (simple or complex). The primary stability is the initial engagement between the bone and implant and one has to ensure that it should be strong and paramount. Implantologists completely monitor the primary stability by synchronizing the above factors. The primary stability is unique and having singular expression is considered as the "password of Implant Integration Account." If the primary stability is good, implant can be loaded quickly and to the maximum.
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Pre-evaluation of implant sites by Dentascans
Prashant P Jaju, Prashant V Suvarna, Arun V Subramaniam, Sushma P Jaju
July-December 2011, 1(2):64-74
Objectives: To study the efficacy of pre-evaluation of implant sites by Dentascans. Materials and Methods: Twenty five patients between age groups of 15 -and 80 years requiring implant placement were selected for this study. The computed tomography (CT) scan machine used for this study was Siemens Somatom Sensation 64. This has multidetector technology with 32 detector array and 64 data channels. Dental software used was Syngo Dental CT 2006 A-W VB20B-W. Axial, paraxial and panoramic images obtained were evaluated for available ridge height and width at implant sites, proximity to maxillary sinus and inferior alveolar canal, easy identification of inferior alveolar canal, radiographic presence of bony concavities and density at implant sites. Results: Dentascan was an effective software in pre-evaluation of available height and width at the implant sites. There was a co-relation between the available bone at the implant sites and region of jaw, sex and age of patients. Proximity to maxillary sinus and inferior alveolar canal was clearly demonstrated by Dentascans. Inferior alveolar canal was identified in 85.71% cases. Bony concavities were identified in 22.95% cases. Dentascans provide subjective evaluation of bone density in Hounsfield units (symbol HU). Conclusion: Dentascans are a rapid, time saving, effective, safe and indispensable procedure in dental implantology. Dentascans determines the available bone at the implant sites accurately without any magnification or distortion that is observed in panoramic radiography. Osseous morphology variations like knife edge ridges, which cannot be demonstrated on conventional radiography, could be appreciated on Dentascans. Bony concavities may not be observed on panoramic radiography; Dentascans provide the opportunity to appreciate such details. Critical anatomical landmarks can be clearly demonstrated on Dentascans. Dentascans provide a subjective evaluation of the density at the implant site.
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Optimising esthetics in second stage dental implant surgery: Periodontist's ingenuity
A Suchetha, Prajakta Vasant Phadke, N Sapna, HR Rajeshwari
July-December 2014, 4(2):170-175
Morphology of the peri-implant soft tissue adjoining the implant components plays a pivotal role in displaying the implant esthetics. Creating an implant restoration that cannot be distinguished from the rest of the natural dentition is the ultimate goal. Second stage surgery is often overlooked and is considered non essential phase but actually could determine the health of the peri-implant tissue .This phase gives an excellent opportunity to preserve, reconstruct and even maneuver the soft tissue to optimize the soft tissue profile around the implant components. The article aims at enumerating the various modalities available to contour the soft tissue profile around implants and thus help the practioners in optimizing esthetics during second stage surgery.
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Stem cells and implantology
Rajiv S Khosla
July-December 2013, 3(2):85-86
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From the Editor's desk: Finite element analysis
Rajiv S Khosla
July-December 2014, 4(2):107-108
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From the Editor's desk
Rajiv S Khosla
July-December 2011, 1(2):41-41
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From the Editor's desk
Rajiv S Khosla
July-December 2012, 2(2):73-73
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Mini-implant supported molar distalization
Amit Goyal, BM Shivalinga, H Jyothikiran, Vishal Patel
July-December 2012, 2(2):136-140
Temporary anchorage devices popularly called mini-implants or mini-screws are the latest addition to an orthodontist's armamentarium. The following case report describes the treatment of a 16-year-old girl with a pleasant profile, moderate crowding and Class II molar relationship. Maxillary molar distalization was planned and mini-implants were used to preserve the anterior anchorage. After 13 months of treatment Class I molar and canine relation was achieved bilaterally and there was no anterior proclination. Thus mini-implants provide a viable option to the clinician to carry out difficult tooth movements without any side effects.
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Overview of surgical guides for implant therapy
T Umapathy, Chirenjeevi Jayam, BS Anila, CP Ashwini
January-June 2015, 5(1):48-52
Prosthetically driven implant prosthesis assures good aesthetics, function and more importantly hygiene maintenance enabling long time success. Accuracy in treatment planning and implementation of planned treatment is vital for this success. Following advancements that have occurred in treatment planning (virtual software) for implant prosthesis; an equal rise is to be expected in transferring the planned therapy to surgical fruition. In this regard, surgical templates have enabled clinician to deliver predictable surgical & prosthetic rehabilitation. Surgical guides have not only decreased the chances of iatrogenic damage of critical anatomic structures; they also increase the esthetic and functional advantages of prosthodontic-driven implant. Within the constraints of this article, the authors describes an over view of use of surgical guides in clinical situation. If clinician is considered a pilot, then surgical guide is his navigator.
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The role of implants in orthodontics
Namrataa Rastogi, Dheeraj Kumar, Amol Bansal
July-December 2011, 1(2):86-92
The control of anchorage is one of the most crucial factor in orthodontic treatment planning. Traditionally, headgears have been used to be one of the most efficient means to gain anchorage but they have their own limitations and so these methods are limited in delivering results, which commensurate with our idealistic goals. Recently, a number of case reports have appeared in the orthodontic literature documenting the possibility of overcoming anchorage limitations via the use of temporary anchorage devices-biocompatible devices fixed to bone for the purpose of moving teeth. Although skeletal anchorage is here to stay in orthodontics, there are still many unanswered questions. So the purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the current status of orthodontic implants and a discussion of established techniques.
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Micro implants for orthodontic anchorage: A review of complications and management
Sanu Tom Abraham, Meenu Merry C Paul
July-December 2013, 3(2):165-167
Orthodontic micro implants play an integral role in providing anchorage for orthodontic tooth movement. The success of implant depends on the device, dentist, and patient. This article gives an overview of the possible complications and management of implants used in orthodontics.
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Strategic extraction: An unexampled epitome altering our profession
Saurabh S Patil, Purshottam S Rakhewar, Satish S Doiphode
July-December 2012, 2(2):121-126
Tooth extraction socket typically undergoes remodeling and resorption; the resulting ridge deformation may cause severe functional and esthetic problems. Several techniques are available to augment the ridge/socket following extraction by means of soft and hard tissue regenerative procedures with the goal of establishing functional and esthetically pleasing implant restoration sites. However, most of these procedures are technically demanding and thus predicting a positive outcome becomes difficult in the hands of most clinicians. Strategic extraction reduces the need for restoring such challenging ridge defects by providing an alternative in the form of a simple, minimally invasive socket-preservation procedure immediately following atraumatic tooth extraction. This article reviews the rational of ridge preservation following atraumatic tooth extraction in order to minimize bone loss and the different treatment modalities for that purpose.
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Three-dimensional finite element analysis of the stress distribution around the implant and tooth in tooth implant-supported fixed prosthesis designs
G Arun Kumar, Lin Cherian Kovoor, Vinni Mary Oommen
July-December 2011, 1(2):75-79
Aim: The study evaluates the stress formed around an implant and a natural tooth under occlusal forces, on different tooth implant-supported fixed prosthesis (TIFP) designs in order to suggest a design, which transmits less stress to the bone. Materials and Methods: A distal extension situation was utilized in this study to evaluate stress distribution around a natural tooth and an implant in TIFP models with three connection designs (i.e., rigidly connected to an abutment tooth, connected to an abutment tooth with a nonrigid connector [NRC], and connected to an abutment implant with an NRC). The stress values of the three models loaded with vertical forces (300 N) were analyzed using three-dimensional finite element analysis. Results: The highest level of stress around the implant and natural tooth was noted on the TIFP models with the RC. On the other hand, NRCs incorporated into the prostheses reduced the stress in the bone around the implant and natural tooth. Conclusion: The present study recommends the use of NRCs on the implant abutment-supported site, if the tooth and implant abutment are to be used together as fixed prosthesis supports. The NRC placed on the implant abutment site reduces the stress around the implant and natural tooth in a fixed prosthesis supported by tooth and implant increasing the life span of both.
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Comparative evaluation of three different methods for evaluating alveolar ridge dimension prior to implant placement: An in vivo study
Anshul Chugh, Poonam Bhisnoi, Divya Kalra, Sarita Maggu, Virendera Singh
July-December 2013, 3(2):101-110
Background: During treatment planning for dental implant placement, there is a need for assessment of alveolar bone. Bone evaluation limited to the use of panoramic and or periapical radiographs may be insufficient, as it provides only two-dimensional information about the implant sites. Computed tomography (CT) provides three-dimensional information. The measurement of alveolar ridge dimensions can be accomplished using ridge-mapping technique. This technique involves penetrating the buccal and lingual mucosa down to the alveolar bone (following the administration of local anesthetic) with calipers and measures the bucco-lingual width of the underlying bone. Purpose: The aim of the study is to compare the techniques, i.e. ridge mapping, direct surgical exposure, and CT scan, which are used to measure the alveolar ridge bone width, and determine their accuracy in the clinical application. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 20 patients who reported to the Out-patient Department (OPD) of Prosthodontics and Crown and Bridge, PGIDS, Rohtak (Haryana) for replacement of edentulous span with dental implant. Width of alveolar ridge was studied by three techniques, i.e. CT scan procedure, ridge mapping, and direct surgical exposure at two points (3 mm from the crest of ridge and 6 mm from the crest of ridge), and then taking measurements of surgical exposure as the control group, the measurements obtained from the other two techniques were compared and then accuracy of these methods was assessed. The mean, standard deviation, standard error of mean, and degree of freedom were calculated and subjected to statistical analysis using Student's unpaired " t" test. Results: Results suggested that there is no significant difference in the measurements obtained by direct surgical exposure technique, ridge-mapping technique, and CT technique. Conclusion: Use of ridge-mapping technique along with panoramic and intraoral radiograph is adequate in cases where the pattern of resorption appears more regular and where mucosa is of more even thickness. It is suggested to use CT scan technique in situations where the alveolar ridges are resorbed, there is presence of maxillary anterior ridge concavities, vestibular depth is inadequate, and ridge mapping is not feasible.
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Screw versus cemented implant restorations: The decision-making process
Saj Jivraj
January-June 2018, 8(1):9-19
Improved skills, techniques and materials, case selections and proved designs have witnessed higher rates of success and survivals of osteointegration with dental implants. But prosthesis failures especially mechanical types have been constantly reported. These prostheses have been secured to the integrated implants with cement or screws. Controversies are rife in literature regarding the choice of retention. This review article provides an overview of the various clinical aspects, abutment designs and materials and procedures used, which contribute to selection of type of retention whether screw or cement and highlighting their clinical significance. The clinician can then use these information for optimizing the retention in an given clinical condition and minimize the risk of complications.
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